2012-11-11

Interrogating the Infallible Secretary

Numerous applications in GNOME exhibit magically wonderful behavior, like they remember everything and know what you want.  One example of such an application is the excellent PDF reader Evince; every time I open a PDF it opens to the same page as the last time I looked at that document.  This means if I get my morning coffee, switch to the GNOME Activity Journal, see that it was the document "Informix_Python_Carsten_Haese.pdf" that I was reading at 16:59 the previous day, I click on that document and it opens to the same slide it was displaying when I closed it the previous day.  And GNOME applications do this kind of thing all day, like an infalliable secretary.

This reminds me of the now very cliche Niven's law: "Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic" [no, that is not a quote from Arthur C. Clarke, as commonly attributed].  I could not longer resist looking behind the curtain, so I set off to discover how my infallible secretary accomplishes this.  The answer is "GVFS" - the GNOME Virtual Filesystem which layers an extensible meta-data system on top of application I/O.

GVFS provides a command line tool, of course [this is UNIX!], that allows the savy user to see into the filing cabinet of their infallible secretary.

$ gvfs-info -a "metadata::*" file:///home/awilliam/Documents/Informix_Python_Carsten_Haese.pdf
attributes:
  metadata::evince::page: 7
  metadata::evince::dual-page-odd-left: 0
  metadata::evince::zoom: 1
  metadata::evince::window_height: 594
  metadata::evince::sizing_mode: fit-width
  metadata::evince::sidebar_page: links
  metadata::evince::window_width: 1598
  metadata::evince::sidebar_size: 249
  metadata::evince::dual-page: 0
  metadata::evince::window_x: 1
  metadata::evince::window_y: 91
  metadata::evince::show_toolbar: 1
  metadata::evince::window_maximized: 0
  metadata::evince::inverted-colors: 0
  metadata::evince::continuous: 1
  metadata::evince::sidebar_visibility: 1
  metadata::evince::fullscreen: 0
And there it is - "metadata::evince::page: 7" - how Evince takes me back to the same page I left from.  As well as lots of other information.

Command line tools are indespensible, but the immediate next question.... can I access this data from Python?  Answer - of course!  With the GIO module the data is there ready to be explored.
>>> import gio
>>> handle = gio.File('/home/awilliam/Documents/Informix_Python_Carsten_Haese.pdf')
>>> meta = handle.query_info('metadata')
>>> meta.has_attribute('metadata::evince::page')
True
>>> meta.get_attribute_string('metadata::evince::page')
'7'

Now knowing that, the System Administrator part of my psyche needs to know: where is all this metadata?  His first guess what that it was being stored in the filesystems using extended attribites:
getfattr --dump "/home/awilliam/Documents/Informix_Python_Carsten_Haese.pdf"
Bzzzzt! Nothing there.  Enough with guessing, every System Administrator worth his or her salt knows that guessing [ugh!] is for PC jockeys and web developers.  The correct approach is to drag the appropriate application out to the sheds and ... make it talk.  It turns out that gvfs-info doesn't put up much of a fight - one glimpse of strace and he's confessing everything.

$ strace -e trace=open gvfs-info -a "metadata::*" "file:///home/awilliam/Documents/Informix_Python_Carsten_Haese.pdf"
...
open("/home/awilliam/.local/share/gvfs-metadata/home", O_RDONLY) = 6
Yes, there it is.

$ file  /home/awilliam/.local/share/gvfs-metadata/home
/home/awilliam/.local/share/gvfs-metadata/home: data
$ fuser -u /home/awilliam/.local/share/gvfs-metadata/home
/home/awilliam/.local/share/gvfs-metadata/home:  2517m(awilliam)  2678m(awilliam) 26624m(awilliam)
$ ps -p 2517
  PID TTY          TIME CMD
 2517 ?        00:08:13 nautilus
$ ps -p 2678
  PID TTY          TIME CMD
 2678 ?        00:01:56 gvfsd-metadata
$ ps -p 26624
  PID TTY          TIME CMD
26624 ?        00:00:17 gedit
A memory-mapped database file [see the "m" after the PID in the output of fuser - that means memory mapped].  And PIDs or of the applications currently performing operations via GIO.   The use of memory mapped files means that read operations require no IPC [inter-process communications] or even syscalls for multiple applications to see the same state.  Now I had to do a little digging for GVFS documentation to understand how they manage concurrency - as multiple writers to memory mapped files is a dicey business [and GIO applications feel rock solid].  The answer is the gvfsd-metadata process.  Applications using GIO push all there writes / changes to that process over D-BUS; so only one process writes, everyone else reads through the memory mapped file.  Concurrency issues are elegantly side-stepped.  Brilliant. 

Now that the geek in me is sated I can go back to letting GNOME and its infallible secretary facilitate my productivity.

2012-10-26

Setting a course for UTC

Timezones and daylight savings times are confusing; it is much more complicated that offset-from-UTC.  There are times that occur more that once a year [yep, it hurts] as well as times that are between two valid times but never happen.  It probably requires a Tardis to understand why anyone would want it to work this way.  But, sadly, it does work this way. 
If you stick to the rules, you can safely manage times... so long as those times are all localized.   Naive times, times that are not localized, are the enemy.
Unfortunately there is a lot of code out there, even in important and widely used modules, that uses nieve datetimes.  If you try to use a virtuously localized datetime object with those modules you will likely encounter the dreaded "Cannot compare naive and localized values".
One hack is to make sure the time is localized to the system's timezone, then make it naive, call the module's function, and then re-localize the result (again). Tedious and very prone to error.  The one real problem with this hack is that on most systems the Python process has not @*^$&*@* clue what time zone it is in.  Don't believe me? Try it:
>>> import time
>>> time.tzname
('EST', 'EDT')
Eh, that's a tuple.  And while "EST" is a time zone "EDT" is not a timezone.  Yes, I can determine that I am in daylight savings time locally using time.daylight; but I can't localize a datetime to a daylight timezone because daylight is an attribute of a timezone, not a timezone itself.  That is true regardless of what time.tzname says.  And the "EST" doesn't have daylight savings time, "US/Eastern" does.  "EST" is "US/Eastern" when not it daylight savings time. Gnarly.
But I want to use datetime obejcts reliably and safely with modules that require naive datetime objects....  The answer is to make the timezone known!  I cannot reliably get it from the system but I can make it what I want, and what I want is UTC!  Then my naive datetime objects do not have to be concerned with daylight savings time.  I can just localize them to UTC and subsequently convert them to whatever timezone the user needs to see.  This is accomplished using a combination of the os and time modules.  Early on in my Python application I move myself to UTC.  Here is an example that demonstrates the ugliness of naive times in an unknown timezone, and the beauty of the process being in UTC.
from datetime import datetime
import pytz, time, os

print( 'NOW: {0}'.format( datetime.now( ) ) )
print( 'UTCNOW: {0}'.format(datetime.utcnow( ) ) )
# What timezone is local?  Problem is, most of the time we just do not know.
print( 'LOCALIZEDNOW: {0}'.format( pytz.timezone( 'UTC' ).localize( datetime.now( ) ) ) )
print( 'LOCALIZEDUTC: {0}'.format( pytz.timezone( 'UTC' ).localize( datetime.utcnow( ) ) ) )

#Change to UTC
os.environ[ 'TZ' ] = 'UTC'
time.tzset( )

print( 'NOW: {0}'.format( datetime.now( ) ) )
print( 'UTCNOW: {0}'.format( datetime.utcnow( ) ) )
print( 'LOCALIZEDNOW: {0}'.format( pytz.timezone( 'UTC' ).localize( datetime.now( ) ) ) )
print( 'LOCALIZEDUTC: {0}'.format( pytz.timezone( 'UTC' ).localize( datetime.utcnow( ) ) ) )
And the output:
NOW: 2012-10-26 07:03:31.285486
UTCNOW: 2012-10-26 11:03:31.285570
LOCALIZEDNOW: 2012-10-26 07:03:31.285632+00:00
LOCALIZEDUTC: 2012-10-26 11:03:31.285705+00:00
NOW: 2012-10-26 11:03:31.285787
UTCNOW: 2012-10-26 11:03:31.285812
LOCALIZEDNOW: 2012-10-26 11:03:31.285848+00:00
LOCALIZEDUTC: 2012-10-26 11:03:31.285875+00:00

Now the danger of somehow getting a naive datetime into the mix is completely avoided - I can always safely localize a naive time to UTC.

2012-09-25

Idjit's Guide To Installing RabbitMQ On openSUSE 12.2

The RabbitMQ team provides a generic SUSE RPM which works on openSUSE 11.x, openSUSE 12.1, and I presume on the pay-to-play versions of SuSE Enterprise Server. About the only real dependency for RabbitMQ is the erlang platform which is packaged in the erlang language repo. So the only real trick is getting the RabbitMQ package itself [from this page].  Then install and start is as simple as:
zypper ar http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/devel:/languages:/erlang/openSUSE_12.2 erlang
zypper in erlang
wget http://www.rabbitmq.com/releases/rabbitmq-server/v2.8.6/rabbitmq-server-2.8.6-1.suse.noarch.rpm
rpm -Uvh rabbitmq-server-2.8.6-1.suse.noarch.rpm
Now before you start the rabbitmq-server you need to modify the /etc/init.d/rabbitmq-server file changing "LOCK_FILE=/var/lock/subsys/$NAME" to "LOCK_FILE=/var/run/rabbitmq/$NAME".  The directory "/var/lock/subsys/$NAME" doesn't exist on openSUSE, so this change puts the lock file over under /var/run/rabbitmq along with the PID file.  Otherwise you can create the /var/lock/subsys/$NAME directory with the appropriate permissions.

Every time you modify a service script in /etc/init.d you need to then run systemctl --system daemon-reload so that systemd knows to anticipate the changed file.
If you want to use Rabbit's management interface you now need to enable the appropriate plugins:
rabbitmq-plugins enable rabbitmq_management
rabbitmq-plugins enable rabbitmq_management_visualiser

By default RabbitMQ will listen on all your hosts interfaces for erlang kernel, AMQP, and HTTP (management interface) connections.  Especially in the case of a developement host you may want to restrict the availability of one or all of these services to the local machine.

In order to keep the erlang kernel and Rabbit's AMQ listeners restricted to the local host you'll need to add two exported environment variables to the service script - just put them in following the definition of PID_FILE.
export RABBITMQ_NODENAME=rabbit@localhost
export ERL_EPMD_ADDRESS=127.0.0.1
For the management inteface and other components you'll need to modify [and possibly create] the /etc/rabbitmq/rabbitmq.config configuration file.  RabbitMQ violates the only-have-one-way-to-configure rule of system administration; this is in part due to its reliance on the Erlang runtime - controlling the behavior of the run-time is a [poorly documented] black art.  Both the environment variables and the configuration file are required to restrict all the components to the local interface.  The following configuration file restricts HTTP [management interface] and AMQP services to the localhost and informs the RabbitMQ application that it should find the Erlang kernel at the address 127.0.0.1.
[
  {mnesia, [{dump_log_write_threshold, 1000}]},
  {kernel,[{inet_dist_use_interface,{127,0,0,1}}]},
  {rabbit, [{tcp_listeners, [{"127.0.0.1", 5672}]}]},
  {rabbitmq_management,  [ {http_log_dir,   "/tmp/rabbit-mgmt"} ] },
  {rabbitmq_management_agent, [ {force_fine_statistics, true} ] },
  {rabbitmq_mochiweb, [ {listeners, [{mgmt, [{port, 55672},
                                             {ip, "127.0.0.1"}]}]},
                        {default_listener, [{port, 60000} ] } ] }
 ].
Always modify the configuration file when the RabbitMQ service is shutdown.  A botched configuration file can render the broker unable to shutdown properly leaving you to have to manually kill the processes old-school.

With the RABBITMQ_NODENAME defined in the services file you will either need to add that same variable to the administrator's and application's environment or specify the node name when attempting to connect to or manage the RabbitMQ broker service [your application probably already refers to a configured broker, but you'll certainly have to deal with this when using the rabbitmqclt command].

Now the service should start:
service rabbitmq-server start
The broker service should now be running and you can see the components' open TCP connections using the netstat command.  The management interface should also be available on TCP/55672 [via your browser of choice] unless you specified an alternative port in the rabbitmq.config file.

linux-nysu:/etc/init.d # netstat --listen --tcp --numeric --program
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Local Address    Foreign Address State  PID/Program name  
tcp   127.0.0.1:5672   0.0.0.0:*       LISTEN 23180/beam.smp     
tcp   127.0.0.1:60712  0.0.0.0:*       LISTEN 23180/beam.smp     
tcp   127.0.0.1:4369   0.0.0.0:*       LISTEN 22681/epmd         
tcp   127.0.0.1:55672  0.0.0.0:*       LISTEN 23180/beam.smp     
Now you probably want to do some configuration and provisioning using the rabbitmqctl command; but your RabbitMQ instance is up and running.

2012-04-15

Using GNOME Terminal Custom Commands

There are numerous terminal session managers and profile managers, etc... for use by people [typically network and system administrators] who have to SSH or telnet to lots of hosts.   But most of these aren't packages or very well maintained - fortunately there is an almost stealth solution built into the familiar gnome-terminal application.
Multiple profiles can be created in gnome-terminal and profiles can be assigned to "Run a custom command instread of my shell";  this command can be anything.  So that profile can automatically telnet or SSH to another host, potentiall even launch an application on that host (such as firing up GNU screen).

The defined profiles are conveniently available in "Files" / "Open Terminal" and "File" / "Open Tab" menu.  Simply create a profile for each host or device that you typically jump on to. If SSH is in use the automatic tie-in to the GNOME passphrase and keyring will kick in.
Generally you don't want a terminal emulator to grab your keystrokes - you want them to go to the application or session.  Under gnome-terminal's "Edit" / "Keyboard Shortcuts" you can enable F10 to activate the ring-menu which will allow you to conveniently navigate to profiles using just the keyboard.

2012-03-05

Sound Converter

A common issue is to have an audio file in one format at to need it in another for compatibility with some specific application or device.  And how to covert the file and know the quality of the result, etc...?  Well... there is a simple application called ... wait for it .... "soundconverter".  It is packaged for just about every distribution and available on openSUSE through the normal repositories.  How obvious can it get?  Apparently not so obvious I couldn't have overlooked it for a long long time.
The soundconverter application.
With soundconverter you can convert between FLAC, MP3, OGG, and WAV.  Add the files you want to covert, use preferences to select the output format, and away you go.  Nice job.

2012-02-08

Installing PDO_INFORMIX on CentOS6

Step#1 : Install the Informix SDK / Client

This is as simple as copying the files to /opt/informix or using one of the various install methods provided.  But beyond that it is necessarily to initialize the required environment variables.  The simplest way to set the environment variables is to create an informix.sh profile script in /etc/profile.d - these scripts are executed by /etc/profile whenever a session is created [such as when a user logs in].  Additionally you'll need to set these same variables in /etc/sysconfig/httpd so that they are set in Apache's environment when started by the system start-up scripts.
$ (cat << EOF
export INFORMIXDIR=/opt/informix
export DBDATE='Y4MD-'
export INFORMIXSERVER=YOURINSTANCENAME
EOF
) > /etc/profile.d/informix.sh
Text 1: Creating /etc/profile.d/informix.sh
YOURINSTANCENAME needs to be defined in /opt/informix/etc/sqlhosts.  Your method of installing the SDK may or may not have set that up for you.

The system library path must also be extended to include the directories containing the SDK's libraries.
$ ( cat << EOF
 /opt/informix/lib
 /opt/informix/lib/cli
 /opt/informix/lib/esql
 /opt/informix/lib/client
 /opt/informix/lib/csm
 /opt/informix/lib/dmi
 EOF
 ) > /etc/ld.so.conf.d/informix.conf
Text 2: Extending the system's library path
 If the library path is not configured correctly applications, included httpd, will not be able to load the Informix libraries.  At this point the library cache can be refreshed by executing the /sbin/ldconfig command.  Once that has been performed either log out and back into the server, or just reboot the server, to verify that upon logging in you have the INFORMIXDIR, INFORMIXSERVER, and DBDATE variables in your enviroment.

Step#2 : Build the Informix PDO driver.

In order to build PHP PECL modules you must have php-devel, make, and gcc installed on the server.
$ pecl download PDO_INFORMIX-1.2.6
$ tar xzf PDO_INFORMIX-1.2.6.tgz
$ cd PDO_INFORMIX-1.2.6
$ phpize
$ configure
$ make
Text 3: Building PDO_INFORMIX
If your Informix SDK is installed correctly and you've properly initialized the environment everything should be found automatically and build without complaint.  Now move the PDO driver into place and inform the PHP interpreter that it needs to load the library.  Here we perform a dirty trick of first loading the base pdo.so library.  This shouldn't be necessary and PHP will grumble about it upon initialization, but it works around some wackiness regarding PDO versions.  Without this line pdo_informix.so will refuse to load because PDO isn't loaded yet because the need for PDO isn't automatically discovered.
$ cp /tmp/PDO_INFORMIX-1.2.6/modules/pdo_informix.so /usr/lib64/php/modules/
$ ( cat << EOF
extension=pdo.so
extension=pdo_informix.so
EOF
 ) > > /etc/php.d/informix.ini
Text 4:  Install and register PDO_INFORMIX
Now we can try to start/restart the Apache service and see if our PDO module is available: service httpd restart.  But it won't work. The loading of the Informix SDK by Apache will be blocked by SELinux's security policy.

Step#3 : Provision SELinux


PHP Warning:  PHP Startup: Unable to load dynamic library '/usr/lib64/php/modules/pdo_informix.so' - libifcli.so: failed to map segment from shared object: Permission denied in Unknown on line 0
The message in /var/log/httpd/error_log indicating that loading the library failed with a "permission denied"; regardless of what you set the permissions too.
Text 4: SELinux blocking the loading of libifcli.so
The solution is not to disable SELinux; SELinux is your over-protective big brother.  Maybe annoying to have around sometimes, but worth it for those time when you need to take a short cut through a dark musty alley.  The correct solution is just to label the required library as a known and approved shared library.
$ chcon -t lib_t /opt/informix/lib/cli/libifcli.so
Text 5: Applying the appropriate label to libifcli.so
Step#3 : Get coffee

Restarting Apache know and you should see the pdo_informix driver available in phpinfo() output.  Also double check that INFORMIXDIR, INFORMIXSERVER, and DBDATE appear in the "Enviroment" section of phpinfo; without these variables the PDO driver will not be able to find your informix instance.

From here on out it is pretty much the web developer's problem.

2012-02-06

Integrating Postfix And CLAMAV

The clamav-miler is packaged by most distributions in their "clamav" package can be used in conjunction with Postfix to protect your network from malware embedded in SMTP traffic. Integration of CLAMAV and Postfix involves four steps:

  1. Configuration and enabling of the clamd service.
  2. Updating the CLAMAV malware database and enabling the freshclam service
  3. Configuration and enabling of the clamav-milter service. Current versions of the clamav-milter require connectivity to the clamd daemon through either a local UNIX socker or a TCP/IP socket.
  4. Configuration of Postfix to utilize the available clamav-milter service.
Step#1 : Enabling the clamd service
LocalSocket /var/lib/clamav/clamd-socket
LogFacility LOG_MAIL
LogSyslog yes
PidFile /var/lib/clamav/clamd.pid
TCPAddr 127.0.0.1
TCPSocket 3310
User vscan
Text 1: Typical settings overridden from defaults in /etc/clamd.conf

The clamd daemon typically reads its configuration from the /etc/clamd.conf file. Most importantly this file specifies, via the TCPSocket and TCPAddr directives, on what IP port and address the service listens for connections. These directives should be set to values appropriate for the host and which will be reachable by the clamav-milter. If the clamav-milter and the clamd daemon will be running on the same host the clamd service can be configured to listen to the localhost address [127.0.0.1] to avoid any potential network firewall and traffic filtering issues.
The clamd.conf file also provides many other tunable values but almost all of these should be appropriate at the distributions defaults.
Once configured the clamd service must be started and enabled for automatic start following the system's boot-up sequence; on RPM based systems this is typically achieved using the service and chkconfig commands.

Step #2 : Enabling the freshclam service

The freshclam service is an instance of the freshclam command line tool started with the “-d” option which runs the command in daemon mode. Whether started from the command-line or running in daemon mode freshclam will read its configuration from the /etc/freshclam.conf file. When running the freshclam daemon will periodically check the CLAMAV project mirrors for new malware signatures and update the local database used by the clamd scanning service. The freshclam daemon should run as the same user context as the clamd service; the typical way to ensure this is to synchronize the values of DatabaseOwner in /etc/freshclam.conf and User in /etc/clamd.conf. The frequency which freshclam will check for new patterns is controlled by the Checks directive – the default is 12 [times a day], this value should be sufficient in most cases. When database update succeeds the freshclam service will notify the clamd service that newer patterns are now available [for this to work the NotifyClamd directive must indicate the correct path to the current clamd configuration file].
DatabaseMirror database.clamav.net
DatabaseOwner vscan
HTTPProxyPort 3128
HTTPProxyServer proxy.example.com
LogFacility LOG_MAIL
LogSyslog yes
NotifyClamd /etc/clamd.conf
OnErrorExecute /usr/local/bin/malware_update_fail.sh
OnUpdateExecute /usr/local/bin/malware_update_ok.sh
PidFile /var/lib/clamav/freshclam.pid
UpdateLogFile /var/log/freshclam.log
Text 2: Example /etc/freshclam.conf file (comments removed)

The most important considerations in configuration of freshclam is if your network configuration requires use of an HTTP proxy server in order to access the CLAMAV mirrors for updates and if you need to configure some form of notification concerning success or failure of the pattern updates – a security focused service like a malware milter doesn't help anyone if it is silently failing in the background.
The HTTPProxyPort and HTTPProxyServer directives allow an HTTP proxy to be specified; freshclam will use this proxy for all mirror requests whether running as a command-line utility or in daemon mode. Should your proxy require a username/password for authentication these can be provided using the additional HTTPProxyUsername and HTTPProxyPassword directives. However it is simpler and more reliable to simply approve the “database.clamav.net” domain and sub-domains on your HTTP proxy service; all mirror requests will be made to those domains.
For notification of successful or failed updates the OnUpdateExecute and OnErrorExecute directives are used respectively. Whatever command is specified here will execute in the security context of the DatabaseOwner. A useful approach is to enable the log file via the UpdateLogFile directive and have the tail-end of that file mailed to a responsible party such as a help-desk or system-administrator for periodic verification that the service is operational.
#!/bin/sh

tail -25  /var/log/freshclam.log \
 | mail -s "[NOTICE] Malware Database Update Successful" \
    -r milter@example.com helpdesk@example.com
Text 3: A simple example script that might be used for OnUpdateExecute
The proper operation of freshclam can be tested by simply executing the freshclam utility on the command-line; it should check the mirrors and download any new patterns without an error message. Once configured and tested the freshclam service must be started and enabled for automatic start following the system's boot-up sequence.

Step #3 : Enabling the clamav-milter service
ClamdSocket tcp:127.0.0.1
LogFacility LOG_MAIL
LogSyslog yes
MilterSocket inet:32767@192.168.1.66
OnInfected Reject
PidFile /var/lib/clamav/clamav-milter.pid
ReportHostname mail.example.com
User vscan
VirusAction /usr/local/bin/virus_notify.sh
Text 4: Example clamav-milter.conf file (with comments removed)

Once the clamd scanning service is running and the freshclam service is maintaining the malware signatures the clamav-milter must be configured and started in order to connect the scanning service into Postfix's SMTP processing. The milter service is typically loads its configuration from the /etc/clamav-milter.conf file.
The service must be informed via the ClamdSocket directive where to find the clamd scanning service and via MilterSocket where to listen for connections from Postfix. The MitlerSocket directive is “inet:port@ip-address”. VirusAction and OnInfected directives can be used to control the behavior of the service when malware is identified; an OnInfected value of Quarantine will cause Postfix to hold the infected message in it's hold queue while a value of Reject will bounce the message with an SMTP error. Especially when used in Reject mode defining an appropriate VirusAction to notify the intended recipient of the message that a message has been discarded is important. The script named by VirusAction is executed in the security context of the scanning service and is provided seven parameters:
  1. Virus name-space
  2. Message queue id
  3. The sender's e-mail addres
  4. The e-mail address of the intended recipient.
  5. The subject of the message-id
  6. The message's Message-ID
  7. The date of the message.
Once configured the clamav-milter service must be started and set to automatically restart upon completion of system boot-up.
#!/bin/bash

# Parameters:
#   virus name, queue id, sender, destination, subject, message id, message date

(
 echo "";
 echo "   A message containing malware has been discarded.";
 echo "";
 echo "   Malware:     $1";
 echo "   Sender:      $3";
 echo "   Destination: $4";
 echo "   Subject:     $5";
 echo "   Message-ID:  $6";
 echo "   Date:        $7";
 echo "   Queue-ID:    $2";
 echo "";
) | \
 mail -s '[ALERT] Infected Messages Discarded' \
  -r milter@example.com -c helpdesk@example.com $4
Text 5: A sample script for use as the VirusAction. This script notifies the intended recipient and help-desk that a message was identified as malware and discarded.
Connecting the Postfix service to clamav-milter

In order to integrate the scanning into Postfix the milter is configured in the main.cf file as an smtpd_milter. The default action of the milter should be set to “accept” so if for any reason the milter is unresponsive messages will still be delivered. As when connecting the other components it is important to verify that the Postfix service can reach the specified service [traffic is permitted by firewall's etc...].
smtpd_milters = inet:milter.example.com:32767
milter_default_action = accept
Text 6: Configuration directives from Postfix's main.cf

Upon modification of the main.cf file the Postfix service should be restarted.
Once configured the malware filtering service should be tested; this can be accomplished by acquiring a copy of the EICAR diagnostic virus and verifying that messages with this content attached are rejected and that the end-user's are notified of the rejection [according the clamav-milter's defined VirusAction].

clamd[11973]: instream(127.0.0.1@60469): Eicar-Test-Signature FOUND
Text 7: Example clamd log message for identified malware.

When malware is detected a message will be logged by clamd via syslog regarding the event; this will typically be logged under the “mail” service. Depending on the distribution messages logged as mail will be written to either /var/log/mail or /var/log/maillog [at least with the default syslog configuration].